Wednesday, October 12, 2005

Gandhi, Grass-Root Democracy and Blogosphere

Gandhi once wrote: "Whatever you do will become insignificant, but it is very important to do it."

... Therefore this posting,

...since it will add to a growing number of voices about the IIPM vs. Rashmi Bansal/Gaurav Sabnis issue, that has helped bringing the Indian blogger community together in just about 48-72 hours.

If you are aware of the facts, skip the first part... Otherwise, here is the unfolding of events:

1. A few months back, JAM magazine, a print magazine brought out by Rashmi Bansal, carried an article questioning the claims made by the full-page ads of Indian Institute of Planning & Management (IIPM).

2. Gaurav Sabnis, an IIML graduate working with IBM, linked the Jammag's article to his blog posting on IIPM. His posting starts with a hilarious sentence: "IIPM is to Management Education, what Parnab Mukherjee is to quizzing."

3. Two months later - and a week back - Gaurav received a "legal notice" from the "IIPM legal cell" threatening a lawsuit for Rs 125crores (!!!). It is a must-read, hilarious and purile notice and contains some gems of threats like:

- "Warning: This email has been judicially notarized and has been tagged to validate receipt and response" and
- "We are also providing your details to respective national and regional police authorities for undertaking and implementing immediate arrest warrants against you. We are also providing your details to various corporations within India and abroad to inform them about the judicial, legal and police action against you; thus ensuring that your details are well documented."

4. Gaurav posted the notice on his blog, and it started circulating on the net (I got it in my mailbox on the 7th). This was the beginning of an Indian redo of the Jonah Paretti vs. Nike case

5. Rashmi Bansal posted the happenings, including a clarification on a comment about JAMmag made on Gaurav's blog posting

6. Suddenly IIPM "discovered" that there are something called blogs, and overnight many IIPM blogs came up - all eulogising the greatness of the institute. Which would have been OK, except that their "owners" also started posting insulting (actually, downright vulgar) comments on Rashmi's blog.

7. Apparently, Jammag was also sent a "legal notice", and its office was visited by IIPM "faculty"...

8. on 10th, Gaurav Sabnis resigned from his job with IBM, since IIPM had apparently threatened to "burn IBM laptops" in front of IBM office, and his super-super boss had rung him up to enquire what this is all about. No, IBM did not fire him... But this is classic tactics for making a seat hot for somone.

9. In any case, all this mobilised the bloggers, and is gaining shape of a major milestone in the blogging community in India. In a way, it has brought them together around a common issue - blogging itself.

10. Today, it also got coverage in Hindustan Times ("Freedom under Siege") and in Mumbai Mirror (Story on IIPM (It Snowballed into High Drama)

11. "IIPM" has become the most searched term on Technorati - the blog search engine - even above "web 2.0", "earthquake", "Paul Krugman" or "bird-flu" (For all one knows, IIPM may convert this into their full page ad: "IIPM ranked by the Global Blog Search Engine, Technorati, as No. 1... above all the IIMs" :0)

So Why is this cyber-event so important?

I don’t think this is just about a replay of themes of David-vs-Goliath, an-individual-against-the-establishment, etc.

It is also not just a matter about cyber-harrassment of Gaurav, Rashmi and some other bloggers - or for that matter, even about IIPM and its dubious claims.

It is also also more than just the vindication of a basic truth about blogs that Steve Hayden of O&M had once mentioned (and as was confirmed by the "IIPM Blogs": "If you fudge or lie on a blog, you are biting the karmic weenie. The negative reaction will be so great that, whatever your intention was, it will be overwhelmed and crushed like a bug. You're fighting with very powerful forces because it's real people's opinions."

It is important because, this is about freedom of expression; it is about someone trying to invade, capture and suppress the grass-root democratic nature of blogosphere

...for those not in the know, blogosphere is the fastest growing medium of grass-root individual expression - 80,000 blogs get created every day, there are about 19mn blogs, and are doubling every five months. That is the reason why blogosphere is the "commons" whose conversations become a threat to the establishment.

This is not the first time, such a thing has happened.

- Earlier this year, Times of India forced journalist Pradyumn Maheshwari to close his blog,, through a similar (and perhaps more real) threat.

- Countries and governments have been banning blogs and imprisoning bloggers, check:

- Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) had to compile a Legal Guide for Bloggers. Check:

In India, perhaps, IIPM's threat of lawsuit, will not hold in court. According to Pavan Duggal, a Supreme Court advocate specialising in cyber laws, "Blogs are not specifically covered in the IT Act of India. Secondly, every citizen has, except in certain extraordinary circumstances, the fundamental right to freedom of speech under the Constitution. This incident of a blogger being threatened with legal action clearly reflects the need for a clarification of the rights of a blogger."

But legal threat is only a peripheral issue. Even if the threat is legally ineffective, an organisation can always keep a lawsuit going,and make an individual bankrupt through what are called the SLAPP (""Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation") - "the corporate technique of suing people into silence and submission... SLAPP targets who fight back seldom lose in court yet are frequently devastated and depoliticized and discourage others from speaking out... SLAPP suits achieve their objectives by forcing defendants to spend huge amounts of time and money defending themselves in court."

Perhaps that is why it is important to rally around the issue, to take sides, to fight...

Gandhi also said: "First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win."


  • #1 (Oct 13, 2005): IIPM vs. Bloggers: The Other Concern
  • #2 (Oct 15, 2005): A couple of comments below, made by a visitor allegedly repesenting IIPM, illustrate why it is necessary to keep the "open space" of blogosphere free from "cyber-vandalism"
  • #3 (Oct 16, 2005): ... for that matter, even the comment by someone who logged on from either MTNL Delhi (IP: or BSNL Delhi (IP: [the two IPs logged on to this blog when the comment was posted] to post the comment, posing as "XL student"...


    Directory of Indian Bloggers
    Gaurav Sabnis' Blog Entry: The Fraud that IIPM Is
    JAM mag article on IIPM
    Garuav Sabnis' posting of IIPM's "Legal Notice"
    Jonah Paretti vs. Nike case
    Rashmi bansal's Blog: Lies, Damned Lies, and Fake Blogs
    Hindustan Times ("Freedom under Siege")
    Mumbai Mirror (Story on IIPM (It Snowballed into High Drama)
    SLAPP (""Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation")


    Anonymous said...
    This comment has been removed by a blog administrator.
    Anonymous said...

    We respect your comments. You are such a brave man.

    If you would be so kind and doubly brave enough in leaving your mailing address, phone number, and any other information that identifies you typically, it'll be a privilege to involve you in a defamation case (SLAPP: as you mention it). It would help us bloggers understand and refine IT laws some bit more. Won't it be the first case of a b-school prof being taken to task for putting defamatory statements? Well, Sir, you would know better, as you seem to know it all.

    With your 'employee' salary, and family to support, would you also go the Gaurav Sabnis way and resign rather than save Freedom of Speech; or was it just an illusory sweet little image that you were attempting to draw up in front of oh-cho-chweet and gullible us bloggers?

    I, and my other various bloggers, shall be waiting to see how much you practice what you preach; or have we understood you wrongly Sir? Please don't run away Sir, please do face those Slappers bravely; for our sake Sir, for the sake of Gaurav Sabnis Sir; about whom you eulogized so much Sir.

    With sincere regards (and the rekindled hope that finally we'll have one person who'll stand up to fight than give up Freedom of Expression),

    Anonymous said...

    This is in response to the last reply by an anonymous. Prof Shukla is a very respected and renowned individual in XLRI school of management. If you are so desparate to know his contacts it is given in his profile in the Blog and his personal site. Even if you try to abuse someone in whatever desparate way you want to you should not leave your brain(if you have any) behind.

    madhukar said...

    To An-ony-mouss "Slapper":

    You will do many people a great favour, if you actually muster up the courage to file a suit - instead of leaving cowardly threats on other people's blogs.

    I will not delete your comment, but will leave it as an example of the difference between "Freedom of Expression" and "Vandalism".

    You may, in the meanwhile, like to go through these links/discussions from Indian Cyber-lawyers to get a better understanding of Indian Cyberlaws:

    1. Pawan Duggal on Blogging & Cyberlaws
    2. Indian Cyberlaw Panelists discuss the "Legal Notice" sent to Sabnis (keep clicking on "next" buttons to read the whole discussion)
    3. Naavi on Cyber-Issues in Blogging

    banished soul said...

    LOL... Madsuks, why am I not surprised tht u are also threatnd???

    And I got the theme for our pdf-zine...

    Anonymous said...

    Oye hero Madhukar (I apologize if Oye sounds derogatory; I am sure Hero would not; but I'll test your amazingly insane Freedom of Expression definition),

    For a legal case to be SLAPPED successfuly on you, they'd need you to definitely identify yourself.

    So rather than developing this idiotic hogwash around your gas bag words, I think you should start farting less and do much more (Have I tested your Freedom Context properly?)

    Send an email from your official email address to with your blog content and your mailing address. It'll be wonderful if you can digitally sign the email (if your brain understands what that means; as you seem to have less of it and keep referring to secondary sites).

    It feels so good to bask in the sunshine of dumb asses like you who want to prove to the world that they believe in Freedom of Expression. Suck this dumb ass. Let's see how long you can keep this comment on your blog.

    I'll tell you how long; as long as you want to gain the god-damned sympathy vote from them other asses.

    Heck sweetie, rather than trying to gather your salary every month end, start worrying about food. Coz I really don't care a shit about whether you really send your blog to them or not. But you'd be a loser both ways.

    Because if you don't, you'll be branded a vain coward (which you obviously are, as dumb as your writing seems); and if you do, you'll be an idiot anyway, as only an idiot would do that.

    So Uncle, it's time to go hit your head against the first building that you see in your campus. It's Freedom of Expression time, and MadSuks shan't be stopped.

    Go baby go, let this comment remain, and see the number of hits on your blog increase like crazy. At least, them girls would start looking at you with a different viewpoint in your classes. Won't they?

    Waiting anxiously for your email to my respected gas bag prof!

    Anonymous said...

    I simply dont understand one simple fact, what stops you from identifying yourself properly instead of using "anonymous" name tag or are you some old foe of Madsuks just trying to do some "chance pe dance" :) :).

    Vikram said...

    woohoo sir, you have your own fan following now! :-D

    yeh anon commenter bechara, kaam ke boj ka maara.. itne legal suit jo file karne hain..

    khair i don't see why you are being flamed.. your post seems pretty neutral.. i mean - i can see DOUE students flaming you anonymously :D but not anonymouses w.r.t. this post..

    Anonymous said...

    Irrespective of madsuks being very clearly myopic in his arguments I do believe that one should not call him or address him the way you are doing .

    Logically I am not with madsuks high ground as I find almost all his arguments very rhetoric - almost like the Al Qaeda diatribes . madsuks Sir please for us students of xl do not kindly use such rhetorical arguments which sound both unimpressive and thoroughly personal.

    But I still am with you sir on the fact that you should not be called names like this guy is doing. It takes away the essence of intellectual debating - though I suspect very strongly sir that you'll lose hands down even if the forum is changed to intellectual debating. My viewpoint is please dont even get into such slanging matches .

    Raghunandan Rao said...


    Damn the IIPM, damn Gaurav and everyone else who have forgotten there is more to life than controversies and taking offence when people tell you the truth ....

    If you ever start a newspaper you have a definite shareholder .....

    Anonymous said...

    Oye Hero Imposter!... don't even "dream" of becoming "us students of xl"!

    your lineage/pedigree shows...

    - The Founder claims a DSc from Berlin School of Economics in 1970 - he even filed an affadevit to that effect with election commission in 2004...

    Berlin School of Economics, however, claims that it was founded in 1971 !!!

    Then your Dean/Son claims that he got an advance of Rs 25 lacs for the Great Indian Dream from the publishers (McMillan India), but again, sadly, the publishers themselves contradicted that claim

    Oh yes, go ask your legal cell to send notices to Indian Express, election commission and berlin school of economics.

    dreamer said...

    hey prabhu hamarey gurudev ka yeh apmaan. Unhein "Gasbag" kaha gaya. mr Anonymous,let me not stoop to the level of yours in condemning or derinding someone. But condemning and deriding is an art that needs to have sophisticated manners. May be or may be not, you are right in cricizing madsuks.But the kind of words that you are using seem to indicate that either you lack good vocabulary or you have indeed bad application orientation.
    Accepting your right to freedom of speech for which I will stand forever, I strongly condemn the selection of words.I will be thankful if you can show that you have manners enough to write a non-offensive mail even when you are criticizing someone.
    Best of Regards
    An XLer.

    Raghunandan Rao said...

    Madhukar, looks like your blog click rate has shot up !!!! :-)) ... thanks to IIPM ....

    Anonymous said...

    Mhandas Ghandi is my idol. He is the man worth emulating and the man worth idolizing. He exemplified Christ like values and made clear the value of man. Among leaders, Ghandi is a fighter of democracy, until a mob ended his life. It is unfair, but heroes die when you least expect them to.

    Anonymous said...

    My dig at IIPM ads. And my unbiased valuation of the episode.

    Anonymous said...

    Nice, was looking for more info on iipm. Good article

    bhattathiri said...

    Your website is beautiful, informative and Excellent.

    Article by M.P. Bhattathiri, Retired Chief Technical Examiner , to The Govt. of Kerala. Humble request that it may be published in your website and magazine after editing if necessary.

    Bhagavad Gita and management

    Spiritualiy and Management
    M.P. Bhattathiri
    Retired Chief Technical Examiner
    Govt. of Kerala


    Table of Contents
    Management guidelines from the Bhagavad Gita
    Old truths in a new context
    The source of the problem
    Utilisation of available resources
    Work commitment
    Motivation – self and self-transcendence
    Work culture
    Work results
    Manager's mental health
    Management needs those who practice what they preach
    In conclusion
    A note on the word "yoga".

    One of the greatest contributions of India to the world is Holy Gita which is considered to be one of the first revelations from God. The management lessons in this holy book were brought in to light of the world by divine Maharshi Mahesh Yogi , Sri Sri RaviShankar and Swami Bodhanandji, and the spiritual philosophy by the great Adi Sankaracharya the greatest philosopher of India and proud son of Kerala, and Sri. Srila Prabhupada Swami and humanism by Mata Amritanandamayi Devi and Satya Sai Baba. Maharishi calls the Bhagavad-Gita the essence of Vedic Literature and a complete guide to practical life. It provides "all that is needed to raise the consciousness of man to the highest possible level." Maharishi reveals the deep, universal truths of life that speak to the needs and aspirations of everyone. Swami Chinmayanandaji preached and educated the people and Swami Sandeep Chaitanyaji continuing the mission by keeping this lantern burning always knowing the wishes of the modern generations. Arjuna got mentally depressed when he saw his relatives with whom he has to fight.( Mental health has become a major international public health concern now). To motivate him the Bhagavad Gita is preached in the battle field Kurukshetra by Lord Krishna to Arjuna as a counseling to do his duty while multitudes of men stood by waiting. It has got all the management tactics to achieve the mental equilibrium and to overcome any crisis situation. The Bhagavad Gita can be experienced as a powerful catalyst for transformation. Bhagavad gita means song of the Spirit, song of the Lord. The Holy Gita has become a secret driving force behind the unfoldment of one's life. In the days of doubt this divine book will support all spiritual searches. This divine book will contribute to self reflection, finer feeling and deepen one's inner process. Then life in the world can become a real education—dynamic, full and joyful—no matter what the circumstance. May the wisdom of loving consciousness ever guide us on our journey? What makes the Holy Gita a practical psychology of transformation is that it offers us the tools to connect with our deepest intangible essence and we must learn to participate in the battle of life with right knowledge?. It shows us the path to handle the situation with equipoised mind irrespective of what comes our way and reminds us time and again, that what the right action is.

    The Holy Gita is the essence of the Vedas, Upanishads. It is a universal scripture applicable to people of all temperaments and for all times. It is a book with sublime thoughts and practical instructions on Yoga, Devotion, Vedanta and Action. It is profound in thought and sublime in heights of vision. It brings peace and solace to souls that are afflicted by the three fires of mortal existence, namely, afflictions caused by one's own body (disease etc), those caused by beings around one (e.g. wild animals, snakes etc.), and those caused by the gods (natural disasters, earth-quakes, floods etc).

    Mind can be one's friend or enemy. Mind is the cause for both bondage and liberation. The word mind is derived from man to think and the word man derived from manu (sanskrit word for man).

    "The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart, O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy."

    There is no theory to be internalized and applied in this psychology. Ancient practices spontaneously induce what each person needs as the individual and the universal coincide. The work proceeds through intellectual knowledge of the playing field (jnana yoga), emotional devotion to the ideal (bhakti yoga) and right action that includes both feeling and knowledge(karma yoga). With ongoing purification we approach wisdom. The Bhagavad Gita is a message addressed to each and every human individual to help him or her to solve the vexing problem of overcoming the present and progressing towards a bright future. Within its eighteen chapters is revealed a human drama. This is the experience of everyone in this world, the drama of the ascent of man from a state of utter dejection, sorrow and total breakdown and hopelessness to a state of perfect understanding, clarity, renewed strength and triumph.

    "Freed from attachment, fear and anger, absorbed in Me, and taking refuge in Me, purified by the penance of knowledge, many have attained union with My Being." (Gita 4:10)

    Mind is very restless, forceful and strong, O Krishna, it is more difficult to control the mind than to control the wind ~ Arjuna to Sri Krishna

    In this modern world the art of Management has become a part and parcel of everyday life, be it at home, in the office or factory and in Government. In all organizations, where a group of human beings assemble for a common purpose irrespective of caste, creed, and religion, management principles come into play through the management of resources, finance and planning, priorities, policies and practice. Management is a systematic way of carrying out activities in any field of human effort. Management need to focus more on leadership skills, e.g., establishing vision and goals, communicating the vision and goals, and guiding others to accomplish them. It also assert that leadership must be more facilitative, participative and empowering in how visions and goals are established and carried out. Some people assert that this really isn't a change in the management functions, rather it's re-emphasizing certain aspects of management.

    Its task is to make people capable of joint performance, to make their weaknesses irrelevant, says the Management Guru Peter Drucker. It creates harmony in working together - equilibrium in thoughts and actions, goals and achievements, plans and performance, products and markets. It resolves situations of scarcity, be they in the physical, technical or human fields, through maximum utilization with the minimum available processes to achieve the goal. Lack of management causes disorder, confusion, wastage, delay, destruction and even depression. Managing men, money and materials in the best possible way, according to circumstances and environment, is the most important and essential factor for a successful management.

    Management guidelines from the Bhagavad Gita
    There is an important distinction between effectiveness and efficiency in managing.

    Effectiveness is doing the right things.
    Efficiency is doing things right.
    The general principles of effective management can be applied in every field, the differences being more in application than in principle. The Manager's functions can be summed up as:

    Forming a vision
    Planning the strategy to realize the vision.
    Cultivating the art of leadership.
    Establishing institutional excellence.
    Building an innovative organization.
    Developing human resources.
    Building teams and teamwork.
    Delegation, motivation, and communication.
    Reviewing performance and taking corrective steps when called for.
    Thus, management is a process of aligning people and getting them committed to work for a common goal to the maximum social benefit - in search of excellence. Major functions of a manager are planning, organizing, leading and coordinating activities -- they put different emphasis and suggest different natures of activities in the following four major functions..

    The critical question in all managers' minds is how to be effective in their job. The answer to this fundamental question is found in the Bhagavad Gita, which repeatedly proclaims that "you must try to manage yourself." The reason is that unless a manager reaches a level of excellence and effectiveness, he or she will be merely a face in the crowd.

    Old truths in a new context
    The Bhagavad Gita, written thousands of years ago, enlightens us on all managerial techniques leading us towards a harmonious and blissful state of affairs in place of the conflict, tensions, poor productivity, absence of motivation and so on, common in most of Indian enterprises today – and probably in enterprises in many other countries.

    The modern (Western) management concepts of vision, leadership, motivation, excellence in work, achieving goals, giving work meaning, decision making and planning, are all discussed in the Bhagavad Gita. There is one major difference. While Western management thought too often deals with problems at material, external and peripheral levels, the Bhagavad Gita tackles the issues from the grass roots level of human thinking. Once the basic thinking of man is improved, it will automatically enhance the quality of his actions and their results.

    The management philosophy emanating from the West is based on the lure of materialism and on a perennial thirst for profit, irrespective of the quality of the means adopted to achieve that goal. This phenomenon has its source in the abundant wealth of the West and so 'management by materialism' has caught the fancy of all the countries the world over, India being no exception to this trend. My country, India, has been in the forefront in importing these ideas mainly because of its centuries old indoctrination by colonial rulers, which has inculcated in us a feeling that anything Western is good and anything Indian, is inferior. Gita does not prohibit seeking money, power, comforts, health. It advocates active pursuit of one's goals without getting attached to the process and the results.

    The result is that, while huge funds have been invested in building temples of modem management education, no perceptible changes are visible in the improvement of the general quality of life - although the standards of living of a few has gone up. The same old struggles in almost all sectors of the economy, criminalization of institutions, social violence, exploitation and other vices are seen deep in the body politic.

    The source of the problem
    The reasons for this sorry state of affairs are not far to seek. The Western idea of management centers on making the worker (and the manager) more efficient and more productive. Companies offer workers more to work more, produce more, sell more and to stick to the organization without looking for alternatives. The sole aim of extracting better and more work from the worker is to improve the bottom-line of the enterprise. The worker has become a hirable commodity, which can be used, replaced and discarded at will.

    Thus, workers have been reduced to the state of a mercantile product. In such a state, it should come as no surprise to us that workers start using strikes (gheraos) sit-ins, (dharnas) go-slows, work-to-rule etc. to get maximum benefit for themselves from the organisations. Society-at-large is damaged. Thus we reach a situation in which management and workers become separate and contradictory entities with conflicting interests. There is no common goal or understanding. This, predictably, leads to suspicion, friction, disillusion and mistrust, with managers and workers at cross purposes. The absence of human values and erosion of human touch in the organizational structure has resulted in a crisis of confidence.

    Western management philosophy may have created prosperity – for some people some of the time at least - but it has failed in the aim of ensuring betterment of individual life and social welfare. It has remained by and large a soulless edifice and an oasis of plenty for a few in the midst of poor quality of life for many.

    Hence, there is an urgent need to re-examine prevailing management disciplines - their objectives, scope and content. Management should be redefined to underline the development of the worker as a person, as a human being, and not as a mere wage-earner. With this changed perspective, management can become an instrument in the process of social, and indeed national, development.

    Now let us re-examine some of the modern management concepts in the light of the Bhagavad Gita which is a primer of management-by-values.

    Utilization of available resources
    The first lesson of management science is to choose wisely and utilize scarce resources optimally. During the curtain raiser before the Mahabharata War, Duryodhana chose Sri Krishna's large army for his help while Arjuna selected Sri Krishna's wisdom for his support. This episode gives us a clue as to the nature of the effective manager - the former chose numbers, the latter, wisdom.

    Work commitment
    A popular verse of the Gita advises "detachment" from the fruits or results of actions performed in the course of one's duty. Being dedicated work has to mean "working for the sake of work, generating excellence for its own sake." If we are always calculating the date of promotion or the rate of commission before putting in our efforts, then such work is not detached. It is not "generating excellence for its own sake" but working only for the extrinsic reward that may (or may not) result.

    Working only with an eye to the anticipated benefits, means that the quality of performance of the current job or duty suffers - through mental agitation of anxiety for the future. In fact, the way the world works means that events do not always respond positively to our calculations and hence expected fruits may not always be forthcoming. So, the Gita tells us not to mortgage present commitment to an uncertain future.

    Some people might argue that not seeking the business result of work and actions, makes one unaccountable. In fact, the Bhagavad Gita is full of advice on the theory of cause and effect, making the doer responsible for the consequences of his deeds. While advising detachment from the avarice of selfish gains in discharging one's accepted duty, the Gita does not absolve anybody of the consequences arising from discharge of his or her responsibilities.Attachment to perishable gives birth to fear, anger, greed, desire, feeling of "mine" and many other negative qualities. Renounce attachment by regarding objects for others and for serving others. Depend only on God (not body, nor intellect), and the dependency on the world will end. Renouncing attachment is the penance of knowledge, which leads to His Being - Truth, Consciousness and Bliss. ( Bhagavad Gita-4.10)

    Thus the best means of effective performance management is the work itself. Attaining this state of mind (called "nishkama karma") is the right attitude to work because it prevents the ego, the mind, from dissipation of attention through speculation on future gains or losses.

    Motivation – self and self-transcendence
    It has been presumed for many years that satisfying lower order needs of workers - adequate food, clothing and shelter, etc. are key factors in motivation. However, it is a common experience that the dissatisfaction of the clerk and of the Director is identical - only their scales and composition vary. It should be true that once the lower-order needs are more than satisfied, the Director should have little problem in optimizing his contribution to the organization and society. But more often than not, it does not happen like that. ("The eagle soars high but keeps its eyes firmly fixed on the dead animal below.") On the contrary, a lowly paid schoolteacher, or a self-employed artisan, may well demonstrate higher levels of self-actualization despite poorer satisfaction of their lower-order needs.

    This situation is explained by the theory of self-transcendence propounded in the Gita. Self-transcendence involves renouncing egoism, putting others before oneself, emphasizing team work, dignity, co-operation, harmony and trust – and, indeed potentially sacrificing lower needs for higher goals, the opposite of Maslow.

    "Work must be done with detachment." It is the ego that spoils work and the ego is the centerpiece of most theories of motivation. We need not merely a theory of motivation but a theory of inspiration.

    The Great Indian poet, Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941, known as "Gurudev") says working for love is freedom in action. A concept which is described as "disinterested work" in the Gita where Sri Krishna says,

    "He who shares the wealth generated only after serving the people, through work done as a sacrifice for them, is freed from all sins. On the contrary those who earn wealth only for themselves, eat sins that lead to frustration and failure."

    Disinterested work finds expression in devotion, surrender and equipoise. The former two are psychological while the third is determination to keep the mind free of the dualistic (usually taken to mean "materialistic") pulls of daily experiences. Detached involvement in work is the key to mental equanimity or the state of "nirdwanda." This attitude leads to a stage where the worker begins to feel the presence of the Supreme Intelligence guiding the embodied individual intelligence. Such de-personified intelligence is best suited for those who sincerely believe in the supremacy of organizational goals as compared to narrow personal success and achievement.

    Work culture
    An effective work culture is about vigorous and arduous efforts in pursuit of given or chosen tasks. Sri Krishna elaborates on two types of work culture – "daivi sampat" or divine work culture and "asuri sampat" or demonic work culture.

    Daivi work culture - involves fearlessness, purity, self-control, sacrifice, straightforwardness, self-denial, calmness, absence of fault-finding, absence of greed, gentleness, modesty, absence of envy and pride.
    Asuri work culture - involves egoism, delusion, personal desires, improper performance, work not oriented towards service.
    Mere work ethic is not enough. The hardened criminal exhibits an excellent work ethic. What is needed is a work ethic conditioned by ethics in work.

    It is in this light that the counsel, "yogah karmasu kausalam" should be understood. "Kausalam" means skill or technique of work which is an indispensable component of a work ethic. " Yogah" is defined in the Gita itself as "samatvam yogah uchyate" meaning an unchanging equipoise of mind (detachment.) Tilak tells us that acting with an equable mind is Yoga.

    (Bal Gangadhar Tilak, 1856-1920, the precursor of Gandhiji, hailed by the people of India as "Lokmanya," probably the most learned among the country's political leaders. For a description of the meanings of the word "Yoga", see foot of this page.)

    By making the equable mind the bed-rock of all actions, the Gita evolved the goal of unification of work ethic with ethics in work, for without ethical process no mind can attain an equipoise. The guru, Adi Sankara (born circa 800 AD), says that the skill necessary in the performance of one's duty is that of maintaining an evenness of mind in face of success and failure. The calm mind in the face of failure will lead to deeper introspection and see clearly where the process went wrong so that corrective steps could be taken to avoid shortcomings in future.

    The principle of reducing our attachment to personal gains from the work done is the Gita's prescription for attaining equanimity. It has been held that this principle leads to lack of incentive for effort, striking at the very root of work ethic. To the contrary, concentration on the task for its own sake leads to the achievement of excellence – and indeed to the true mental happiness of the worker. Thus, while commonplace theories of motivation may be said to lead us to the bondage or extrinsic rewards, the Gita's principle leads us to the intrinsic rewards of mental, and indeed moral, satisfaction.

    Work results
    The Gita further explains the theory of "detachment" from the extrinsic rewards of work in saying:

    If the result of sincere effort is a success, the entire credit should not be appropriated by the doer alone.
    If the result of sincere effort is a failure, then too the entire blame does not accrue to the doer.
    The former attitude mollifies arrogance and conceit while the latter prevents excessive despondency, de-motivation and self-pity. Thus both these dispositions safeguard the doer against psychological vulnerability, the cause of the modem managers' companions of diabetes, high blood pressure and ulcers.

    Assimilation of the ideas of the Gita leads us to the wider spectrum of "lokasamgraha" (general welfare) but there is also another dimension to the work ethic - if the "karmayoga" (service) is blended with "bhaktiyoga" (devotion), then the work itself becomes worship, a "sevayoga" (service for its own sake.)

    Along with bhakti yoga as a means of liberation, the Gita espouses the doctrine of nishkamya karma or pure action untainted by hankering after the fruits resulting from that action. Modern scientists have now understood the intuitive wisdom of that action in a new light.

    Scientists at the US National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, found that laboratory monkeys that started out as procrastinators, became efficient workers after they received brain injections that suppressed a gene linked to their ability to anticipate a reward. The scientists reported that the work ethic of rhesus macaques wasn't all that different from that of many people: "If the reward is not immediate, you procrastinate", Dr Richmond told LA Times.

    (This may sound a peculiarly religious idea but it has a wider application. It could be taken to mean doing something because it is worthwhile, to serve others, to make the world a better place – ed.)

    Manager's mental health
    Sound mental health is the very goal of any human activity - more so management. Sound mental health is that state of mind which can maintain a calm, positive poise, or regain it when unsettled, in the midst of all the external vagaries of work life and social existence. Internal constancy and peace are the pre-requisites for a healthy stress-free mind. At the initial stages when engaging in a relationship, the mind may wander and go to different places. But we must have a clear aim, a clear focus, a single pointed direction. Thereafter the mind will not wander in different places. The mind will remain on only one.

    Some of the impediments to sound mental health are:

    Greed - for power, position, prestige and money.
    Envy - regarding others' achievements, success, rewards.
    Egotism - about one's own accomplishments.
    Suspicion, anger and frustration.
    Anguish through comparisons.
    The driving forces in today's businesses are speed and competition. There is a distinct danger that these forces cause erosion of the moral fiber, that in seeking the end, one permits oneself immoral means - tax evasion, illegitimate financial holdings, being "economical with the truth", deliberate oversight in the audit, too-clever financial reporting and so on. This phenomenon may be called as "yayati syndrome".

    In the book, the Mahabharata, we come across a king by the name of Yayati who, in order to revel in the endless enjoyment of flesh exchanged his old age with the youth of his obliging youngest son for a thousand years. However, he found the pursuit of sensual enjoyments ultimately unsatisfying and came back to his son pleading him to take back his youth. This "yayati syndrome" shows the conflict between externally directed acquisitions (extrinsic motivation) and inner value and conscience (intrinsic motivation.)

    Our mind is like a Computer, continuously programmed since our childhood along with some vasanas from our previous birth. This programming is both good and bad for ourselves, a healthier programming makes us a productive and happy individual, while a bad program may turn us into a unproductive. If we choose to surrender our Mind, Ego and operate from that realm, it is like asking a person to live with his brain defunct!! It will be a futile exercise. Mental peace can be achieved by effective delegation. Delegation is when supervisors give responsibility and authority to subordinates to complete a task, and let the subordinates figure out how the task can be accomplished. Effective delegation develops people who are ultimately more fulfilled and productive. Managers become more fulfilled and productive themselves as they learn to count on their staffs and are freed up to attend to more strategic issues.

    Delegation is often very difficult for new supervisors, particularly if they have had to scramble to start the organization or start a major new product or service themselves. Many managers want to remain comfortable, making the same decisions they have always made. They believe they can do a better job themselves. They don't want to risk losing any of their power and stature (ironically, they do lose these if they don't learn to delegate effectively). Often, they don't want to risk giving authority to subordinates in case they fail and impair the organization.

    This is one reason why such an exercise of surrendering mind, ego etc fails in the real world. Man is a biological machine, and he cannot operate without those necessary components of his software.
    Management needs those who practice what they preach
    "Whatever the excellent and best ones do, the commoners follow," says Sri Krishna in the Gita. The visionary leader must be a missionary, extremely practical, intensively dynamic and capable of translating dreams into reality. This dynamism and strength of a true leader flows from an inspired and spontaneous motivation to help others. "I am the strength of those who are devoid of personal desire and attachment. O Arjuna, I am the legitimate desire in those, who are not opposed to righteousness," says Sri Krishna in the 10th Chapter of the Gita.

    In conclusion
    The despondency of Arjuna in the first chapter of the Gita is typically human. Sri Krishna, by sheer power of his inspiring words, changes Arjuna's mind from a state of inertia to one of righteous action, from the state of what the French philosophers call "anomie" or even alienation, to a state of self-confidence in the ultimate victory of "dharma" (ethical action.)

    When Arjuna got over his despondency and stood ready to fight, Sri Krishna reminded him of the purpose of his new-found spirit of intense action - not for his own benefit, not for satisfying his own greed and desire, but for the good of many, with faith in the ultimate victory of ethics over unethical actions and of truth over untruth.

    Sri Krishna's advice with regard to temporary failures is, "No doer of good ever ends in misery." Every action should produce results. Good action produces good results and evil begets nothing but evil. Therefore, always act well and be rewarded.

    My purport is not to suggest discarding of the Western model of efficiency, dynamism and striving for excellence but to tune these ideals to India's holistic attitude of " lokasangraha" - for the welfare of many, for the good of many. There is indeed a moral dimension to business life. What we do in business is no different, in this regard, to what we do in our personal lives. The means do not justify the ends. Pursuit of results for their own sake, is ultimately self-defeating. ("Profit," said Matsushita-san in another tradition, "is the reward of correct behavior." – ed.)

    A note on the word "yoga".
    Yoga has two different meanings - a general meaning and a technical meaning. The general meaning is the joining together or union of any two or more things. The technical meaning is "a state of stability and peace and the means or practices which lead to that state." The Bhagavad Gita uses the word with both meanings.


    Let us go through what scholars say about Holy Gita.

    "No work in all Indian literature is more quoted, because none is better loved, in the West, than the Bhagavad-gita. Translation of such a work demands not only knowledge of Sanskrit, but an inward sympathy with the theme and a verbal artistry. For the poem is a symphony in which God is seen in all things. . . . The Swami does a real service for students by investing the beloved Indian epic with fresh meaning. Whatever our outlook may be, we should all be grateful for the labor that has lead to this illuminating work."
    Dr. Geddes MacGregor, Emeritus Distinguished Professor of Philosophy University of Southern California

    "The Gita can be seen as the main literary support for the great religious civilization of India, the oldest surviving culture in the world. The present translation and commentary is another manifestation of the permanent living importance of the Gita."
    Thomas Merton, Theologian

    "I am most impressed with A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada's scholarly and authoritative edition of Bhagavad-gita. It is a most valuable work for the scholar as well as the layman and is of great utility as a reference book as well as a textbook. I promptly recommend this edition to my students. It is a beautifully done book."
    Dr. Samuel D. Atkins Professor of Sanskrit, Princeton University

    "As a successor in direct line from Caitanya, the author of Bhagavad-gita As It Is is entitled, according to Indian custom, to the majestic title of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. The great interest that his reading of the Bhagavad-gita holds for us is that it offers us an authorized interpretation according to the principles of the Caitanya tradition."
    Olivier Lacombe Professor of Sanskrit and Indology, Sorbonne University, Paris

    "I have had the opportunity of examining several volumes published by the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust and have found them to be of excellent quality and of great value for use in college classes on Indian religions. This is particularly true of the BBT edition and translation of the Bhagavad-gita."
    Dr. Frederick B. Underwood Professor of Religion, Columbia University

    "If truth is what works, as Pierce and the pragmatists insist, there must be a kind of truth in the Bhagavad-gita As It Is, since those who follow its teachings display a joyous serenity usually missing in the bleak and strident lives of contemporary people."
    Dr. Elwin H. Powell Professor of Sociology State University of New York, Buffalo

    "There is little question that this edition is one of the best books available on the Gita and devotion. Prabhupada's translation is an ideal blend of literal accuracy and religious insight."
    Dr. Thomas J. Hopkins Professor of Religion, Franklin and Marshall College

    "The Bhagavad-gita, one of the great spiritual texts, is not as yet a common part of our cultural milieu. This is probably less because it is alien per se than because we have lacked just the kind of close interpretative commentary upon it that Swami Bhaktivedanta has here provided, a commentary written from not only a scholar's but a practitioner's, a dedicated lifelong devotee's point of view."
    Denise Levertov, Poet

    "The increasing numbers of Western readers interested in classical Vedic thought have been done a service by Swami Bhaktivedanta. By bringing us a new and living interpretation of a text already known to many, he has increased our understanding manyfold."
    Dr. Edward C Dimock, Jr. Department of South Asian Languages and Civilization University of Chicago

    "The scholarly world is again indebted to A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Although Bhagavad-gita has been translated many times, Prabhupada adds a translation of singular importance with his commentary."
    Dr. J. Stillson Judah, Professor of the History of Religions and Director of Libraries Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California

    "Srila Prabhupada's edition thus fills a sensitive gap in France, where many hope to become familiar with traditional Indian thought, beyond the commercial East-West hodgepodge that has arisen since the time Europeans first penetrated India. "Whether the reader be an adept of Indian spiritualism or not, a reading of the Bhagavad-gita As It Is will be extremely profitable. For many this will be the first contact with the true India, the ancient India, the eternal India."
    Francois Chenique, Professor of Religious Sciences Institute of Political Studies, Paris, France

    "It was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us"
    Emerson's reaction to the Gita

    "As a native of India now living in the West, it has given me much grief to see so many of my fellow countrymen coming to the West in the role of gurus and spiritual leaders. For this reason, I am very excited to see the publication of Bhagavad-gita As It Is by Sri A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. It will help to stop the terrible cheating of false and unauthorized 'gurus' and 'yogis' and will give an opportunity to all people to understand the actual meaning of Oriental culture."
    Dr. Kailash Vajpeye, Director of Indian Studies Center for Oriental Studies, The University of Mexico

    "The Gita is one of the clearest and most comprehensive one, of the summaries and systematic spiritual statements of the perennial philosophy ever to have been done"
    __________________________________________Aldous Huxley

    "It is a deeply felt, powerfully conceived and beautifully explained work. I don't know whether to praise more this translation of the Bhagavad-gita, its daring method of explanation, or the endless fertility of its ideas. I have never seen any other work on the Gita with such an important voice and style. . . . It will occupy a significant place in the intellectual and ethical life of modern man for a long time to come."
    Dr. Shaligram Shukla Professor of Linguistics, Georgetown University

    "I can say that in the Bhagavad-gita As It Is I have found explanations and answers to questions I had always posed regarding the interpretations of this sacred work, whose spiritual discipline I greatly admire. If the aesceticism and ideal of the apostles which form the message of the Bhagavad-gita As It Is were more widespread and more respected, the world in which we live would be transformed into a better, more fraternal place."
    Dr. Paul Lesourd, Author Professeur Honoraire, Catholic University of Paris

    "When I read the Bhagavad-Gita and reflect about how God created this universe everything else seems so superfluous."
    Albert Einstein

    "When doubts haunt me, when disappointments stare me in the face, and I see not one ray of hope on the horizon, I turn to Bhagavad-gita and find a verse to comfort me; and I immediately begin to smile in the midst of overwhelming sorrow. Those who meditate on the Gita will derive fresh joy and new meanings from it every day."
    Mahatma Gandhi

    "In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagavad-gita, in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial."
    Henry David Thoreau

    "The Bhagavad-Gita has a profound influence on the spirit of mankind by its devotion to God which is manifested by actions."
    Dr. Albert Schweitzer

    "The Bhagavad-Gita is a true scripture of the human race a living creation rather than a book, with a new message for every age and a new meaning for every civilization."
    Sri Aurobindo

    "The idea that man is like unto an inverted tree seems to have been current in by gone ages. The link with Vedic conceptions is provided by Plato in his Timaeus in which it states 'behold we are not an earthly but a heavenly plant.' This correlation can be discerned by what Krishna expresses in chapter 15 of Bhagavad-Gita."
    Carl Jung

    "The Bhagavad-Gita deals essentially with the spiritual foundation of human existence. It is a call of action to meet the obligations and duties of life; yet keeping in view the spiritual nature and grander purpose of the universe."
    Prime Minister Nehru

    "The marvel of the Bhagavad-Gita is its truly beautiful revelation of life's wisdom which enables philosophy to blossom into religion."
    Herman Hesse

    "I owed a magnificent day to the Bhagavad-gita. It was the first of books; it was as if an empire spoke to us, nothing small or unworthy, but large, serene, consistent, the voice of an old intelligence which in another age and climate had pondered and thus disposed of the same questions which exercise us."
    Ralph Waldo Emerson

    "In order to approach a creation as sublime as the Bhagavad-Gita with full understanding it is necessary to attune our soul to it."
    Rudolph Steiner

    "From a clear knowledge of the Bhagavad-Gita all the goals of human existence become fulfilled. Bhagavad-Gita is the manifest quintessence of all the teachings of the Vedic scriptures."
    Adi Shankara

    "The Bhagavad-Gita is the most systematic statement of spiritual evolution of endowing value to mankind. It is one of the most clear and comprehensive summaries of perennial philosophy ever revealed; hence its enduring value is subject not only to India but to all of humanity."
    Aldous Huxley

    "The Bhagavad-Gita was spoken by Lord Krishna to reveal the science of devotion to God which is the essence of all spiritual knowledge. The Supreme Lord Krishna's primary purpose for descending and incarnating is relieve the world of any demoniac and negative, undesirable influences that are opposed to spiritual development, yet simultaneously it is His incomparable intention to be perpetually within reach of all humanity."

    The Bhagavad-Gita is not seperate from the Vaishnava philosophy and the Srimad Bhagavatam fully reveals the true import of this doctrine which is transmigation of the soul. On perusal of the first chapter of Bhagavad-Gita one may think that they are advised to engage in warfare. When the second chapter has been read it can be clearly understood that knowledge and the soul is the ultimate goal to be attained. On studying the third chapter it is apparent that acts of righteousness are also of high priority. If we continue and patiently take the time to complete the Bhagavad-Gita and try to ascertain the truth of its closing chapter we can see that the ultimate conclusion is to relinquish all the conceptualized ideas of religion which we possess and fully surrender directly unto the Supreme Lord.
    Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati

    "The Mahabharata has all the essential ingredients necessary to evolve and protect humanity and that within it the Bhagavad-Gita is the epitome of the Mahabharata just as ghee is the essence of milk and pollen is the essence of flowers."

    Yoga has two different meanings - a general meaning and a technical meaning. The general meaning is the joining together or union of any two or more things. The technical meaning is "a state of stability and peace and the means or practices which lead to that state." The Bhagavad Gita uses the word with both meanings. Lord Krishna is real Yogi who can maintain a peaceful mind in the midst of any crisis."
    Mata Amritanandamayi Devi.

    Karma, Bhakti, and Jnana are but three paths to this end. And common to all the three is renunciation. Renounce the desires, even of going to heaven, for every desire related with body and mind creates bondage. Our focus of action is neither to save the humanity nor to engage in social reforms, not to seek personal gains, but to realize the indwelling Self itself.
    Swami Vivekananda (England, London; 1895-96)

    "Science describes the structures and processess; philosophy attempts at their explaination.----- When such a perfect combination of both science and philosophy is sung to perfection that Krishna was, we have in this piece of work an appeal both to the head annd heart.
    " ____________Swamy Chinmayanand on Gita

    I seek that Divine Knowledge by knowing which nothing remains to be known!' For such a person knowledge and ignorance has only one meaning: Have you knowledge of God? If yes, you a Jnani! If not, you are ignorant.As said in the Gita, chapter XIII/11, knowledge of Self, observing everywhere the object of true Knowledge i.e. God, all this is declared to be true Knowledge (wisdom); what is contrary to this is ignorance."
    Sri Ramakrishna

    Maharishi calls the Bhagavad-Gita the essence of Vedic Literature and a complete guide to practical life. It provides "all that is needed to raise the consciousness of man to the highest possible level." Maharishi reveals the deep, universal truths of life that speak to the needs and aspirations of everyone.
    Maharshi Mahesh Yogi

    The Gita was preached as a preparatory lesson for living worldly life with an eye to Release, Nirvana. My last prayer to everyone, therefore, is that one should not fail to thoroughly understand this ancient science of worldly life as early as possible in one's life.
    --- Lokmanya Tilak

    I believe that in all the living languages of the world, there is no book so full of true knowledge, and yet so handy. It teaches self-control, austerity, non-violence, compassion, obedience to the call of duty for the sake of duty, and putting up a fight against unrighteousness (Adharma). To my knowledge, there is no book in the whole range of the world's literature so high above as the Bhagavad-Gita, which is the treasure-house of Dharma nor only for the Hindus but foe all mankind. --- M. M. Malaviya

    Let us go through what scholars say about ancient India

    "India was the mother of our race and Sanskrit the mother of Europe's languages. She was the mother of our philosophy, mother through the Arabs, of much of our mathematics, mother through Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity, mother through village communities of self-government and democracy. Mother India is in many ways the mother of us all."

    - Will Durant

    "If there is one place on the face of this Earth "where all the dreams of living men have found a home "from the very earliest days when Man began the dream of"existence, it is India."

    - Romain Rolland - French Philosopher 1886-1944

    It is opposed to their (Hindus) foreign origin, that neither in the Code (of Manu) nor, I believe, in the Vedas, nor in any book that is certainly older than the code, is there any allusion to a prior residence or to a knowledge of more than the name of any country out of India. Even mythology goes no further than the Himalayan chain, in which is fixed the habitation of the gods... .To say that it spread from a central point is an unwarranted assumption, and even to analogy; for, emigration and civilization have not spread in a circle, but from east to west. Where, also, could the central point be, from which a language could spread over India, Greece, and Italy and yet leave Chaldea, Syria and Arabia untouched? There is no reason whatever for thinking that the Hindus ever inhabited any country but their present one, and as little for denying that they may have done so before the earliest trace of their records or tradition.

    - 1841 M.S. Elphinstone, the first governor of the Bombay Presidency,,,,, ,,neovedanta/,, bhavan's journal.

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